Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee Osteoarthritis

It is estimated that over 27 million people have osteoarthritis (OA) in one or more joints in the United States.1 The knee is the most frequently involved joint in OA.2 The etiology of knee OA is multifactorial. Knee OA is a degenerative condition resulting in loss of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, and narrowing of joint space.3  These changes lead to pain and a decline in quality of life. Advancing age, female gender, obesity, occupational injuries, trauma to the joint, and heredity play a role in the pathology of OA.2 Prevalence of OA in populations in ages greater than 45 years of age is 12.5%.4 Weight gain of 5 kg is associated with a 36% increased risk of developing OA in load-bearing joints, and has been associated to greater OA severity in obese individuals compared to individuals of normal weight.5 Difficulties with activities of daily living such as standing from a seated position due to knee pain, climbing stairs, walking, stooping, instability or weakness are often reported by individuals with knee OA.1 Knee OA is associated with proprioception deficits and aging in this population leads to reduced physical function.1,2 Muscular weakness and pain experienced in this population results in avoidance of painful activities, which contributes to disability.6

Attributing risk factors for knee OA include age, gender, race and ethnicity. Lifestyle risk factors include being overweight or obese, sedentary lifestyle, knee joint injury, occupational exposures such as excessive kneeling, squatting, prolonged standing, lifting and climbing steps.7

Physical therapists at Two Trees PT/Two Trees Ortho can help address knee pain and improve physical function through therapeutic exercise, manual therapy and neuromuscular re-education. Wellness programs offered at Two Trees PT can help you lose weight and contribute to improvements in knee pain associated with osteoarthritis.


Cyndy Rivera PT, DPT

Doctor of Physical Therapy at Two Trees Physical Therapy – Oxnard

Graduated from California State University, Sacramento in 2015 with a doctorate in physical therapy. Bachelor and Master degrees in Kinesiology from California State University, Northridge in 2008 and 2012, respectively. I enjoy working with a wide array of orthopedic conditions including knee osteoarthritis, total knee replacements, meniscus tears, ACL tears, runner’s knee, IT band friction syndrome.

  1. Rogers MW, Tamulevicius N, Semple SJ, Krkeljas Z. Efficacy of home-based kinesthesia, balance & agility exercise training among persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. J Sports Sci Med. 2012;11:751-758.
  2. Diracoglu D, Aydin R, Baskent A, Celik A. Effects of kinesthesia and balance exercises in knee osteoarthritis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2005;11:303-310.
  3. Kerkhof HJ, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Arden NK, et al. Prediction model for knee osteoarthritis incidence, including clinical, genetic and biochemical risk factors. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013; 0:1-6. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203620. [Epub ahead of print]
  4. Suri P, Morgenroth DC, Hunter DJ. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis and associated comorbidities. PM&R. 2012; 4:10-19.
  5. Chapple CM, Nicholson H, Baxter GD, Abbott JH. Patient characteristics that predict progression of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of prognostic studies. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011;63:1115-1125.
  6. Vincent HK, Heywood K, Connelly J, Hurley RW. Obesity and weight loss in the treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis. PM&R. 2012;4:59-67.
  7. Salli A, Sahin N, Baskent A, Ugurlu H. The effect of two exercise programs on various functional outcome measures in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2010;18:201-209.
  8. Suri P, Morgenroth DC, Hunter DJ. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis and associated comorbidities. PM&R. 2012;4:10-19.